Internet of things is an interconnection of physical devices embedded with electronics, software, sensor which is capable of collecting data from the surrounding and sending data over internet is called IOT. The fire detection gathers all of the techniques and processes that contribute to early detection of a fire. We identify three main categories: Smoke detection, Flame detection and Temperature detection.
Automatic fire alarm system provides real-time surveillance, monitoring and automatic alarm. An automatic fire alarm system based on wireless sensor networks is developed, which is designed for high-rise buildings.
To provide early extinguishing of a fire disaster, large numbers of detectors which periodically measure smoke concentration or temperature are deployed in buildings. In this paper will we present the different techniques we had been already used to detect fire. Some of those techniques include fire detection using image proces sing and sensors, fire detection using CCTV technology, Fire detection using zigbee which is a kind of personal area network.
The main characteristics of sensor nodes include: small physical size, low cost, limited processing power, low battery capacity, and short-range communications. A Wireless Sensor Networks consist of huge number of sensor nodes and is a set of hundreds or thousands of micro sensor nodes that have capabilities of sensing, establishing wireless communication between each other and doing computational and processing operations.
Applications of IOT:
- IOT for mobile operator
- IOT for manufacture of smart devices
- IOT for Banks and payment solution
- IOT for Automobile industry
- IOT for Airlines
- IOT for Health
In microcontroller system has middle ware that sends data to system and detects fire generation or not. Micro controller is the main part of this system. To which all the sensor outputs are given as input to micro controller.
Power supply is given for the release of the functions in the micro controller. As PIC18f4550 has feature of inbuilt ADC it makes the circuit less bulky. In controller transfer analog signal to digital signal and transfer data to server.
Temperature sensor is a sensor which will sense the temperature of its surrounding and send these details to the processing unit. In this system our processing system will be the Arduino board which will take the readings of the sensor and then send these values to our system.
Gas sensor is a sensor which will detect gas. It will detect gases which are released when fire is caused like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many more. When any gases will be detected the sensor will give value as one, if no particular gas is detected it will give value zero. This combination of zero and ones will be used to detect fire. The gas sensor will particularly detect the gases that are released when fire is detected.
Flame sensor is a sensor which will detect presence of Flame. It will detect flame which is generated when fire is caused. When flame of any intensity will be detected the sensor will give value as one, if no particular flame is detected it will give value zero. This combination of zero and ones will be used to detect fire.
Zigbee Based Technique:
Wireless sensor network is a network which consists of nodes deployed for gathering information and using it for processing. WSN is used for various application like security, agriculture, monitoring and for many other purposes. Fire detection can be done using zigbee. Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4 specification which is used for data transmission.
It is used to create a personal area network which is cheaper than Bluetooth, WIFI and other network. In zigbee loss of data is negligible hence it is efficient. For detecting fire using zigbee RS 232 is used it is zigbee device.
Safe From Fire:
It is an algorithm which is used for fire detection. The technique which uses this algorithm is known as Safe From Fire technique. In this technique three sensors are used which are flame sensors, gas sensors and temperature sensors. Arduino is a micro controller which is used for collecting data from the sensors.
Fire Detection Using Image Processing and Sensors:
It uses a camera along with sensors. The camera keeps on capturing images every 30 seconds and sensors keep on sensing the environment parameter. Whenever a picture is capture which contains red, yellow or orange color in specific pattern image processing is done. The RGB image is converted into grey image which is further converted to binary value.
CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) Technology:
It has great advantage for use on sensing and monitoring a fire. Compared with other types of fire detectors, the video cameras cannot be fooled by visible, or emissions from common background sources, eliminating such false alarm problems.
It is processes multiple spectral images in realtime to reliably detect a small fire or smoke at greater distances in very short times, and at the same time, it can identify the location of a fire, track its growth and monitor fire suppression. It can be trained for very rapid response, making it suitable for explosion suppression
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometers for Fire Detection:
FTIR can examine the entire spectrum from about 2.5m to 25m, and quantify the presence of multiple species of interest to provide early fire warning with low false alarms. FTIR measurement also provided significant amounts of additional data prior to ignition and during early stage of combustion, including monomeric species, unburned fuel, oxygenates, olefins, and pyrolysis products. Commercial FTIR instruments are now available, and have the potential to sense CO, HCN, HCl, CO2, H2O, and miscellaneous hydrocarbons.
There is an immense need of implementation of automatic fire detecting system to protect lives and assets from fire hazards. In this paper full fire protection systems are explained. Use of real-time control via the Internet or wireless network will extend the monitoring and control of fire safety systems outside of the building. The status of the fire safety system and other building systems can be monitored at any time and from anywhere via the Internet or wireless network.
The fire safety systems located in many buildings will be controlled from one central facility office. This will increase the efficiency and reduce costs for building management operations, more efficiently discriminate between fire and non-fire threats and increase the time available for property and life protection. However, Internet-based monitoring and control of building service systems will need security protection to prevent false fire information being provided to building owners and fire brigades.
Source: DYPIET college
Authors: Reshma Shinde | Ritika Pardeshi | Archana Vishwakarma | Nayan Barhate