The recent advancements in technology and the availability of the Internet make it possible to connect various devices that can communicate with each other and share data. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a new concept that allows users to connect various sensors and smart devices to collect real-time data from the environment. However, it has been observed that a comprehensive platform is still missing in the e-Health and m-Health architectures to use smartphone sensors to sense and transmit important data related to a patient’s health.
In this paper, our contribution is two fold.Firstly, we critically evaluate the existing literature, which discusses the effective ways to deploy IoT in the field of medical and smart health care. Secondly, we propose a new semantic model for patients’ e-Health. The proposed model named as ‘k-Healthcare’ makes use of 4 layers; the sensor layer, the network layer, the Internet layer and the services layer. All layers cooperate with each other effectively and efficiently to provide a platform for accessing patients’ health data using smart phones.
As mentioned in previous section, the IoT takes important place in e-Health and medical care by using different sensing devices and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Much research on this topic has been done, which can be further categorized and enumerated.
Automating design methodology (ADM) based on ontology is presented for smart rehabilitation system in IoT. This architecture uses RFID, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and cable network with Ethernet and TCP/IP. Some features of Artificial Intelligence are also applied to enhance the self-learning method of rehabilitation system.
- Emergency Handling
- Access Mechanism
COMPARISON AND CONTRAST ANALYSIS
We investigated the relevant studies reported in the referenced papers, we notice that some of researchers proposed new architectures and models for IoT, which help to deploy IoT in the field of medical and healthcare. It is also noticed that some of the authors follow IEEE and other standards to implement their proposed IoT model to provide remote monitoring and emergency aid while some of the authors simply explain the applications of IoT in healthcare.
- Emergency Aid
- Multi device support
- Sensor Layer
- Network Layer
- Internet Layer
- Services Layer
The k-Healtcare model proposed in this paper for efficient deployment of IoT in the field of medical and healthcare consists of four layer (See Figure 2).
CASE STUDY OF K – HEALTHCARE IOT
The data displayed on the screen of the smart phone, and sent automatically to cloud storage for processing and storing using 3G or Wi-Fi. Machine learning algorithms are applied on data to verify the conditions of the patient. If the value is out of the normal range, then an alert message is sent to a doctor/physician, and the doctor will take appropriate action accordingly. The whole scenario of the process shown in Figure 3.
m-Health and e-Health are providing different services remotely, such as prevention and diagnosis against disease, risk assessment, monitoring patient health, education and treatment to users. This is why e-Health and m-Health is being widely accepted in the society. The emerging of state of the art tools and technologies of IoT can be really beneficial for e-Health and m-Health. Different e-Health and m-Health architectures for IoT have been developed which handle an emergency situation efficiently.
However, the existing e-Health and m-Health architectures do not use smart phone sensors to sense and transmit important data related to the patients’ health. We proposed a novel framework for e-Health and m-Health which makes use of smart phone sensors and body sensors to obtain, process and transmit patient health related data to centralize storage in the cloud.This stored data could be retrieved by patients’ and other stakeholders in the future.Our proposed model, named k-Healthcare, makes use of four layers which work closely together and provide efficient storing, processing and retrieving of valuable data.
We have provided a comparative analysis of different architectures and applications of IoT which can be used in e-Health and m-Health. The ongoing work focuses on the actual development and deployment of k-Healthcare. One way could be the design of a software or smartphone application which will obtain the data directly from the sensors and process it automatically. Furthermore, we will investigate the security and privacy issues of k-Healthcare.
Source: University of Bedfordshire
Authors: Kaleem Ullah | Munam Ali Shah | Sijing Zhang