This study was made to investigate the effects of ozonation and filtration on raw water from Lake Mälaren. The study was performed in lab-scale as well as in a pilot plant at Lovö waterworks, Stockholm Water Company.
The conventional treatment at Lovö waterworks comes with a few disadvantages, such as large consumption of chemical coagulants. The chemical consumption leads to many transports and the treatment also produces a sludge which is, in present, returned to Lake Mälaren. In 2001 a pilot plant were built at Lovö waterworks for research on new treatment processes, and ozonation followed by filtration is one of them.
Ozonation has been used in Europe for several years as disinfection at the end of the drinking water treatment process. The interests of ozonation has increased significantly in recent years and today the ozonation is used in other steps in the drinking water treatment process. Except for the disinfection, ozone has other benefits such as oxidation of iron and manganese, microflocculation, reduction of taste and odour and it is also effective to reduce the water colour. The microflocculation leads to the fact that less or no coagulants need to be used in the process.
This study started with a literature overview followed by experiments on ozonation and filtration in the pilot plant. After the first experiments the conclusions were that the ozonation and filtration did not reach the same results as Lovö waterworks. To continue, jar tests were made to see the effects of different coagulants. The result indicated that ferric sulphate together with calcium addition (pH-adjustment) was a good alternative. Thereby a lower coagulant dose could be used.
When ferric sulphate and calcium were implemented into the pilot plant, different ozone doses and ferric sulphate doses were tested. The best results occurred when an ozone dose of 6 mg O3/l and a ferric sulphate dose of 50-60 μmol/l were used. This amount of ferric sulphate is approximately 60 % lower than that for the conventional treatment at Lovö waterworks.
To produce ozone electrons are needed and energy consumption increases with approximately 66 % compared to the conventional treatment. The decrease in chemical dose and increase in energy demand gives a decrease of the total cost with 10 % compared to the conventional treatment. The results indicate that the treatment with ozonation, calcium addition and ferric sulphate as a coagulant is an alternative to the conventional treatment.
Different filters were used in the pilot plant and to improve the results a Filtralite-filter was tested instead of the GAC-filter as a bio filter. When comparing Filtralite-filter with the GAC-filter there were large differences between the filters at the beginning of the study. When the bacteria population in the Filtralite-filter had started to increase the differences became less. In the end of the experimental period the filters had similar conditions and Filtralite-filter may be a good alternative as a biofilter.
Source: Uppsala University
Author: Larsson, Nina