The functional quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) and their constructed polyQAS or PQAS were synthesized, characterized and formulated into a novel antibacterial glass-ionomer cement. Compressive strength (CS) and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the cements.
Fuji II LC cement was used as control. The specimens were conditioned in distilled water at 37 oC for 24 h prior to testing. The effects of the substitute chain length, loading as well as grafting ratio of the QAS and aging on CS and S. mutans viability were investigated.
Chapter 2 describes how we studied and evaluated the formulated antibacterial glass-ionomer cement by incorporating QAS chloride-containing polymer into the formulation. The results show that with PQAS addition, the studied cements showed a reduction in CS with 25-95% for Fuji II LC and 13-78% for the experimental cement and a reduction in S. mutans viability with 40-79% for Fuji II LC and 40-91% for the experimental cement. The experimental cement showed less CS reduction and higher antibacterial activity as compared to Fuji II LC. The long-term aging study indicates that the cements are permanently antibacterial with no PQAS leaching.
Chapter 3 describes how we studied and evaluated the formulated antibacterial cements by changing chain length, type of halide, loading, grafting ratio and aging time. The results show that the effects of the chain length, loading and grafting ratio of the QAS were significant. Increasing chain length, loading, grafting ratio significantly enhanced antibacterial activity but reduced CS. The experimental cement showed less CS reduction and higher antibacterial activity as compared to Fuji II LC. The long-term aging study indicates that the cements are permanently antibacterial with no PQAS leaching. There was no significant difference between QAS bromide and QAS chloride, suggesting that we can use QAS bromide directly without converting bromide to chloride.
In summary, we have developed a novel PQAS-containing antibacterial glass-ionomer cement. The cement has demonstrated significant antibacterial activities. Our experimental cement is a promising system because the reduced strength of the cement with addition of PQAS is still above those demonstrated by original commercial cement Fuji II LC without any PQAS addition. It appears that the experimental cement is a clinically attractive dental restorative that can be potentially used for long-lasting restorations due to its high mechanical strength and permanent antibacterial function.
Author: Xia Guo
Source: Purdue University